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Morning

07:30 a.m. - 08:00 a.m.
Continental Breakfast

Location: Capitol View Terrace

08:00 a.m. - 09:30 a.m.
Research Podium Session 4 - Psychology & Public Health

Location: Capitol Ballroom A-D
Moderators: Sophie Bergeron, PhD & Dennis Fortenberry, MD, MS

08:00 a.m. - 08:10 a.m.
Sexual Preferences and Partnerships of Transgender Women Post Transition (#026)

L.A. Fein

026
Sexual Preferences and Partnerships of Transgender Women Post Transition
Fein, LA1; Estes, CM2; Salgado, CJ 1
1: University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA; 2: Planned Parenthood of South Florida and the Treasure Coast, USA

Objectives: The transition process undertaken by transgender women can affect sexual desire both negatively and positively. For transwomen cross-sex hormone therapy has been associated with reduced libido and sexual desire while gender confirmation surgery (vaginoplasty) has been shown to increase sexual desire and satisfaction. Transwomen are also more likely than transmen experience hypoactive sexual desire disorder. To investigate the effects of transitioning on transwomen's sexual experiences, we developed a survey to explore their current and past sexual partnerships, including sexual partner preference, as they relate to the transition.
Materials and Methods: IRB approval was obtained to design and distribute a survey using SurveyMonkey.com within our referral network of transgender patients. Transgender women were asked to identify their phase of transition (pre, mid, post) and if they have a current primary sexual partner and any past sexual partners. They were also asked if their sexual preference had changed since beginning their transitions.
Results: The survey was accessed by 71 transgender women. After excluding incomplete surveys and responses from those who had not begun their transition, 54 surveys were ultimately analyzed. Overall, 33% (18/54) reported having no current primary sex partner, only one of whom had never had a sex partner in her life. Among these 18 transwomen, 15 (83%) had initiated hormone therapy and 4 (22%) had undergone orchiectomy. None had undergone gender confirmation surgery (vaginoplasty). Since beginning their transition, 28% (15/54) of transgender women reported a change in sexual preference. Of these 15, 4 (27%) reported current natal male partners, 4 (27%) reported current natal female partners, and 1 (7%) reported a current transgender female partner. Six (40%) reported no current sexual partner.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that transwomen do report lacking a primary sexual partner after initiating their transition but prior to vaginoplasty despite having had sexual partners in the past. Additionally, over 25% of respondents reported a change in sexual preference since initiating their transition. These results suggest that the transition does have an impact on sexual partnerships and preferences of transwomen. Further investigation is needed to evaluate longitudinal outcomes and rationales for these sexual relationship changes.

Disclosure:
Work supported by industry: no.

08:10 a.m. - 08:20 a.m.
Impact of Sexual Violence on HIV Epidemic in Highlands of Papua New Guinea: Results from a Cohort of Sex Workers (#027)

H. Wand

027
Impact of Sexual Violence on HIV Epidemic in Highlands of Papua New Guinea: Results from a Cohort of Sex Workers
Wand, H1; Siba, P2
1: University of New South Wales, Australia; 2: IMR, Papua New Guinea

Objectives: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is located in the south-western Pacific Ocean and is considered to be one of the most geographically, culturally and linguistically diverse country in the world. PNG is also estimated to have the highest number of HIV infections in the Asia-Pacific region. This is the first study to report results from the PNG-Australia Sexual Health Improvement Program (PASHIP).
Materials and Methods: PASHIP study used respondent-driven sampling frame work to recruit female sex workers (SW) from the Eastern Highlands Province of PNG during the period of 2009-2012. All participants received the behavioural survey and those who volunteered were tested for HIV infection. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between socio-demographic, sexual behaviours and HIV testing and diagnosis. We also estimated population level impacts of educational media and interventions for providing HIV/AIDS awareness and HIV testing uptake.
Results: 523 SW with a median age of 20 years were included in the study. Although vast majority of women (90%) had heard about HIV/AIDS and more than 82% knew the most common transmission route of HIV, only 30% of them reported consistent condom use in past four weeks and 39% them consented to be tested for HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 7% (95% Confidence interval (CI):4%-11%) among those who volunteered to get tested; Lack of education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR):9.62, 95%CI: 2.86 - 32.30), being raped in past 12 months (AOR:3.48, 95%CI:1.08 -11.21) and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (AOR:3.19, 95%CI:1.03-10.0) were significantly associated with prevalent HIV. Population level impact of knowledge/awareness of HIV accounted for ~60% of the "untested" cases and ~70% of the HIV diagnoses; while educational interventions were all significantly associated with HIV testing behaviour (Figure); population level-impacts of mass media interventions (television and radio) as well as booklets/pamphlets were similar to those HIV/AIDS prevention programs.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that SW in PNG are at high risk for HIV transmission. Sexual violence, such as rape, was determined to be the most significant factor associated with HIV seropositivity. Future prevention and treatment programs need to target this key-population to prevent the spread of HIV.

Disclosure:
Work supported by industry: no.

08:20 a.m. - 08:30 a.m.
Sexual Dysfunction and Distress amongst US Army Active Duty Females: A Prevalence Study (#028)

E. Penick

028
Sexual Dysfunction and Distress amongst US Army Active Duty Females: A Prevalence Study
Penick, E1; Hemman, E1; Vaccaro, C1
1: Madigan Army Medical Center, USA

Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and distress in active duty female service members as well as to document whether deployment impacts their sexual function.
Materials and Methods: Active duty military women between the ages of 18 – 65 scheduled for a routine gynecology visit at Madigan Army Medical Center were invited to participate in an anonymous survey study. Respondents completed a demographics questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R), and the General Health Survey Short Form (SF-12), which measured physical and mental wellness. The goal sample size was 163 women based on the active duty population at Joint Base Lewis McChord and distressing sexual complaints occurring in 12% of US women overall. Data was analyzed using t tests, ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test as appropriate.
Results: The overall survey response rate was 56% (192/339).  The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction was 54.9% in US Army active duty women. The prevalence of female sexual distress was 25.7%. Overall, deployment did not appear to impact sexual function as there were no statistically significant differences in scores noted on the FSDS-R (p = 0.894). However, the FSFI total sum of scores was noted to be statistically significant between the deployed and not deployed groups (p= 0.033), favouring improved sexual function in those women who had deployed. A possible confounding variable was that deployed women had higher scores in the physical composite of the SF-12 (SF physical score 71.20 v. 68.29, p=0.045). A multivariate logistic regression was performed controlling for physical and mental functioning; however, deployment was not a risk factor for sexual dysfunction or sexually related distress.
Conclusion: The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and associated distress is high in US Army active duty women despite a high level of physical fitness. In addition, deployment does not appear to impact sexual function.

Disclosure:
Work supported by industry: no.

08:30 a.m. - 08:40 a.m.
Attitudes of Parents Related to the Sexuality of Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities Compared to Typically Developing Peers and Siblings (#029)

S. Stein

029
Attitudes of Parents Related to the Sexuality of Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities Compared to Typically Developing Peers and Siblings
Stein, S1; Kohut, T2
1: Department of Psychology, Indiana University South Bend; 2: Department of Psychology, Western University

Several studies within the last fifteen years indicate the increased rate of forced sexual interactions for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), compared with non-disabled individuals, worldwide with incidence for these events ranging from 44% in children with IDD (Briggs, 2006; Kvamm, 2004) to 83% in adults (Johnson & Sigler, 2000) with IDD. One of the possible risk factors explaining these statistics is lack of sexuality education for this population. Sex education efforts for individuals with IDD are lacking, especially for those with the lowest IQs. However, the need for educational programming is immense.
This study assesses the beliefs and sexuality education programming needs of parents of children with and without disabilities. Sixty-two parents responded to a 31-question, online survey comprised of forced-choice, multiple option, and open-ended questions about themselves, their child, and their perception and attitudes about their child's sexuality.
While participants generally understood that many persons with IDD are sexually victimized at some point in their life (mean estimate = 57.3%), few parents of children with IDD within our sample believed that their child may have a coercive sexual experience before the age of 18 (28.6%). Furthermore, parents of children with IDD were significantly less likely to recognize that their child could have a consensual sexual interaction before age 18 than parents of children without disabilities (28.6% vs. 72.4%). Despite the low recognition for sexual risk among this group, most parents of children with IDD (89.3%) acknowledged the utility of sexuality education for their child. The top three types of people favored to deliver sex education included the participant themselves (93.0%), the child's other parent (70.2%), or a sexuality educator (61.4%). Medical provider was tied with child's other parent for parents of children with special needs. The three most frequently endorsed resources that parents indicated would be helpful in providing their child with sexuality education included interactive websites (55.6%), workshop with a professional (50.0%), and a book with a lesson plan (37.0%). Parents of children with special needs were significantly more likely to endorse workshops with a professional compared to parents of typically developing children (64.3% 34.6%, p < .05)
The disparity in parents' perception of risk and actual risk for children and adults with IDD is a fertile area of intervention for medical and mental health professionals and sexuality educators who interact with this population.

Disclosure:
Work supported by industry: no.

08:40 a.m. - 08:50 a.m.
Sexual Functioning and Disclosure of Sexual Assault: The Mediating Role of Trauma Symptomology (#030)

J. Staples

030
Sexual Functioning and Disclosure of Sexual Assault: The Mediating Role of Trauma Symptomology
Staples, J1; Eakins, D1; Neilson, E1; George, W1; Davis, K1; Norris, J1
1: University of Washington, USA

Objective: Previous research has demonstrated that a history of adult sexual assault (ASA) is associated with negative outcomes, including trauma symptomology and fear of sexual intimacy. Disclosing sexual assault to family, friends or health care providers may be protective against such negative outcomes. Few studies have investigated the intersection of ASA, disclosure, trauma symptomology, and sexual functioning. This study examined the association between disclosing ASA, current sexual functioning, and trauma symptomology.
Method: Participants included 652 female heavy episodic drinkers at risk for sexually transmitted infections, age 21-30, recruited from the community. Participants had a history of ASA. Mediational analyses were conducted using bootstrapping and controlling for ASA severity. Separate mediational analyses were conducted with sexual functioning divided into: sexual desire, anxiety during sex, and pain during sex.
Results: Mediational analysis revealed indirect associations for each construct. Trauma symptomology mediated the relationship between disclosure and sexual desire such that disclosing ASA was associated with lower trauma symptomology, which was associated with lower sexual desire (95% CI [-0.0715, -0.0054]). Trauma symptomology also mediated the relationship between disclosure and anxiety during sex such that disclosing ASA was associated with lower trauma symptomology, which was associated with lower anxiety (95% CI [-.1170, -.0189]). Trauma symptomology mediated the relationship between disclosure and pain during sex such that disclosing ASA was associated with lower trauma symptomology, which was associated with lower pain (95% CI [-.0770, -.0081]). Not disclosing ASA history was associated with increased trauma symptoms, which was associated with higher sexual desire, higher anxiety during sex, and higher pain during sex.
Conclusion: This is consistent with a model in which exposure to sexual stimuli can heighten subjective arousal while concurrently eliciting responses that inhibit physiological sexual response in ASA survivors (Rellini, 2008). The downstream impact of ASA on sexual functioning appears complex with potentially self-contradictory response patterns within the same individual. Disclosing experiences of ASA may serve a protective function by lessening trauma symptomology, thereby mitigating effects on aspects of sexual functioning. However, further research is warranted to more fully understand the effects on sexual desire, which may not be consistent with the protective impact.

Disclosure:
Work supported by industry: no.

08:50 a.m. - 09:00 a.m.
Unraveling Data on the Sexual Practices, Values and Perceptions of University Youth from the Arab World: The Case of Lebanon (#031)

F. El Kak

031
Unraveling Data on the Sexual Practices, Values and Perceptions of University Youth from the Arab World: The Case of Lebanon
Ghandour, L1; El Salibi, N1; Yasmine, R1El Kak, F1
1: American University of Beirut, Lebanon

Objectives: this study is the first to investigate the sexual behaviours, attitudes and perceptions of private university students from Lebanon.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among university students attending a large private university in the capital city Beirut.
Results: Of those who responded to ever having had oral or anal or vaginal sex (n=1838), half (n=943) were sexually active, a third of which reported having had anal and/or oral sex particularly to avoid hymen-breaking (higher percentages among females). Penetrative sexual practices with an unfamiliar partner were 8 times more likely in males (p<0.0001). Female students, however, were twice more likely to report engaging in sexual practices when they did not really want to, and having been in a relationship where they felt things were moving too fast physically (p-value<0.0001). About 1 in 5 female students reported non-consensual sex at sexual debut compared to 13% of males (p=0.013); again, 20% of the females reported ever having been sexually abused versus 7% of the males (p<0.0001). Males were twice more likely to be drinking or using drugs at sexual debut. Common socio-cultural concerns about sexual initiation are gaining a bad reputation (60%), social rejection (69%), religion (75%) and parental disapproval (76%), feeling guilty afterwards (70%), and losing self-respect (69%), all more commonly reported by females.
Conclusion: Establishing baseline estimates of youth sexual values and practices, while examining gender differences, is fundamental for directing research and implementing effective youth programs.

Disclosure:
Work supported by industry: yes, by Ford Foundation (industry funding only - investigator initiated and executed study).

09:00 a.m. - 09:10 a.m.
Among Sexually Dysfunctional Women Sexual Function is Determined More by Partner's Sexual Satisfaction than own Sexual Satisfaction (#032)

C.S. Pulverman

032
Among Sexually Dysfunctional Women Sexual Function is Determined More by Partner's Sexual Satisfaction than own Sexual Satisfaction
Pulverman, CS1; Meston, CM1
1: University of Texas at Austin, USA

Objectives: About 27% of women in the United States report sexual arousal dysfunction (Shifren, Monz, Russo, & Segreti, 2008). A variety of treatments have been tested for the treatment of arousal problems, yet success rates are low (Heiman, 2002). Women's sexual function has been conceived of as more contextually and relationally focused than men's sexual function (Basson et al., 2004), therefore more investigation into external factors that affect women's sexual function is highly warranted.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-one heterosexual couples completed self-report measures prior to participating in a treatment study for female sexual arousal dysfunction. Women were currently experiencing DSM-IV-TR Female Sexual Arousal Disorder with or without Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and/or Orgasmic Disorder. Women completed the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen et al., 2000) and Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (Meston & Trapnell, 2005). Men completed a series of questions on sexual function and satisfaction adapted from the FSFI and SSS-W.
Results: In a linear regression analysis controlling for women's sexual satisfaction, men's sexual satisfaction significantly predicted women's sexual function (r = .61, F(2,49) = 14.29, p < .001). The standardized regression coefficients were .33 (p < .05) for women's sexual satisfaction and .40 (p < .01) for men's sexual satisfaction. Men's sexual satisfaction was a stronger predictor of women's sexual function than women's own sexual satisfaction.
Conclusions: Supporting the notion that women's sexual function is more context dependent than men's, this study suggests that women may be more sensitive to relational factors than intrapersonal factors when evaluating their sexual function. This finding argues for treating female sexual dysfunction as a couple's problem, rather than an individual problem. The notion of treating sexual dysfunction in the couple has been called for previously in studies on men with erectile dysfunction (Aubin et al., 2009; Heiman et al., 2007). Incorporating both members of the couple into the treatment program could reduce shame and increase motivation, potentially leading to better outcomes.

Disclosure:
Work supported by industry: no. The presenter or any of the authors act as a consultant, employee (part time or full time) or shareholder of an industry.

09:10 a.m. - 09:20 a.m.
Women’s Hostility towards Women as a Predictor of Rape Myth Acceptance (#033)

T. Gleitz

033
Women's Hostility towards Women as a Predictor of Rape Myth Acceptance
Gleitz, T1; Powell, H1; Barnett, M1
1: University of North Texas, USA

Just-world/defensive attribution theories (Shaver, 1970, 1985; Burger, 1981) have indicated that women show hostility towards women as a defense mechanism due to fear of sexual assault (Batchelder, Koski, & Byxbe, 2004). Holding hostility towards women allows women to distance themselves from victims of rape, and deny the possibility of becoming a victim themselves (Batchelder et al., 2004). Little extant literature provides any indication of a relationship between sociosexual orientation, the tendency to engage in sexual behavior outside of a committed relationship (Penke & Asendorpf, 2008), and rape myth acceptance among women. However, rape myths typically support the idea that victims of sexual assault are more promiscuous (Suarez & Gadalla, 2010). Thus, individuals higher in sociosexual orientation, who typically engage in or support sexual behavior outside of a committed relationship, may also support rape myths as a defense mechanism, lessening their own fear by finding fault in the actions of the victim. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sociosexual orientation could be a predictor of rape myth acceptance, and compare its prediction to that of hostility towards women. We hypothesized (H1) that sociosexual orientation would predict rape myth acceptance among women. We also hypothesized (H2) that hostility towards women would predict rape myth acceptance among women. Female undergraduate students (N = 698) at the University of North Texas were recruited through SONA, and answered self-report questions from the Hostility Towards Women Scale, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, and the Revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory. Results of multiple regression analysis found that hostility towards women predicted rape myth acceptance (β = .261, p = .000), as well as sociosexual orientation (β = .009, p = .009) among women. These results indicate that hostility towards women is a better predictor of rape myth acceptance than sociosexual orientation among women. This fits with the just-world/defensive attribution theories that hostility towards women is used as a defense mechanism for women to distance themselves from victims of sexual assault through the acceptance of rape myths, alleviating some of the fear that it could also happen to them (Shaver, 1970, 1985; Burger, 1981)

Disclosure:
Work supported by industry: yes, by University of North Texas (industry funding only - investigator initiated and executed study). The presenter or any of the authors act as a consultant, employee (part time or full time) or shareholder of an industry.


08:00 a.m. - 09:30 a.m.
Instructional Course 4 - Mindfulness for the Treatment of Sexual Pain

Location: Capitol Ballroom E
Faculty: Karen Brandon, DSc, PT & Talli Rosenbaum, MSc., IF

Thursday, Feb. 19, 2015 Friday, Feb. 20, 2015 Saturday, Feb. 21, 2015 Sunday, Feb. 22, 2015